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Celiac disease: Causes & Symptoms

Raina Rahul Agarwal 23 Sep, 2022 Health & Fitness 1 Comment
Celiac Disease


Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease. It is a complex immune-mediated disorder in which the immune causes damage to the small bowel (small intestine) when affected people consume gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, rye and other grains. Exposure to gluten causes inflammation in the gut. Repeated exposure gradually damages the intestine’s wall. Celiac is a digestive and multisystem disorder that affects multiple organs of the human body. It is also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitivity enteropathy).

When someone with celiac disease eats gluten-containing foods like pasta, bread, and pizza, their body overreacts to protein(gluten) and damages the villi that small finger-like projection found along the wall of the small intestine. After damaging these villi our small intestine can’t absorb nutrients from the food which we intake. Eventually, it can cause malnourishment as well as loss of bone density, miscarriage and infertility. Sometimes it can also lead to neurological disorders and cancer too.

What Are The Symptoms Of Celiac Disease

Celiac disease

The symptoms of celiac disease may range from mild to severe and it can change from time to time and from person to person. Children can more likely to get symptoms in comparison to adults. These symptoms are:

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Blotting
  • Gas
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pale stool with a foul smell
  • Fatty stool with floats.

Symptoms of celiac disease in adults:

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Bloating
  • Anaemia (Low Blood count)
  • Bone or Joint Pain
  • Constipation
  • Headache or fatigue
  • Mouth Ulcer (Aphthous ulcer)
  • Nervous System Injury (It can occur as a tingling sensation in the lungs)
  • Weight Loss
  • Itchy, Blistery rash (Dermatitis herpetiformis)
  • Depression
  • Anxiety

People with celiac disease may suffer from nutrient deficiency disease as the small intestine can’t absorb nutrients from the food after being damaged.

What Are The Causes & Risk Factors Of Celiac Disease?

Scientists did not find a definite reason for the disease yet, however they linked this disease to certain genes. Celiac disease can trigger if the immune system overreacts to the gluten protein in the food. This reaction damages the villi of the small intestine so it couldn’t be able to absorb nutrients like Vitamin B12, D and K from the foods.

Celiac disease

Sometimes Celiac disease becomes active after surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, viral infection and severe emotional trauma. Celiac disease tends to run in people who have:

  • A family member with Celiac disease and Dermatitis herpetiformis (A chronic, intensely itchy, blistering skin manifestation).
  • Type 1  diabetes
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease
  • Addison’s disease (A disease that occurs when the body does not produce enough hormones).
  • Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic and Collageneous colitis)
  • Down Syndrome  ( A condition in which a human has an extra chromosome)& Turner Syndrome  ( A condition in which one of the x chromosomes i.e sex chromosomes is missing).

How is Celiac Disease Diagnosed?

A doctor can suggest for diagnosis after performing a physical examination and discussing medical history. They may be advised to perform blood tests to find out whether they have celiac disease.

  1. Serological Tests: To look for certain antibodies.
  2. Complete blood count: For anaemia
  3. C-reactive protein: For inflammation
  4. Blood Test: To check for other parts of the immune system.
  5. Metabolic Panels Test: For Liver and Kidney functions
  6. Iron & Ferritin Test: For iron deficiency
  7. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein test
  8. Vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and Folate test



author avatar
Raina Rahul Agarwal
My name is Raina Agarwal, and I am a seasoned content writer with three years of experience in the field. Holding a master's degree in microbiology. I have also garnered valuable experience as a microbiologist, with a career spanning over a decade since 2011. My diverse professional background enables me to offer unique insights and perspectives in my content creation endeavours.

Raina Rahul Agarwal

A Non-Medical Scientist, BSL-2 Lab, Mirzapur

1 Comment on 'Celiac disease: Causes & Symptoms'

  • September 26, 2022
    Food Allergy: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis - ReviewLaza:

    […] are peanuts, treenut, crustacean, shellfish, milk, soyabeans and wheat. Cell-mediated reaction is Celiac disease which is caused by the ingestion of the gluten protein franction of wheat, rye, barley and related […]

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