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Malaria: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis

Raina Rahul Agarwal 16 Nov, 2022 Disease 3 Comments
Malaria

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Malaria Virus

Introduction

Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease that remains in any region of the world, a major public health problem. Malaria is one of the infectious diseases, it is the third largest disease which kills children between the age of one month and five years following pneumonia and diarrhoea. A child dies of malaria every two minutes, said Stephan Swartling Peterson, UNICEF Chief of Health.

In 2020 nearly half of the world’s population was suffering from the risk of malaria. There were 241 cases of malaria found in 2020 according to the latest World Malaria Report. In 2020 estimated cases of deaths of malaria were found at 627000.

What Is Malaria?

Malaria is an acute febrile disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium that enters the body through the bite of an infected mosquito female Anopheles. There are 5 parasites that cause malaria, in which P.Falcipuram is the life-threatened parasite and the most prevalent on the African continent. Mosquito Anopheles carries the parasite plasmodium and enters this parasite into the human bloodstream through the bite of a mosquito.

When mosquitoes bite the infected person it sucks the blood of that person that is infected with the parasite. When this mosquito bites a healthy person it releases the parasite plasmodium into the bloodstream of a healthy person. Once the parasite enters the human bloodstream, it migrates to the liver, where it matures and increases in number, it enters the human bloodstream and begins to infect red blood cells. Ultimately, they red blood cells, causing symptoms of malaria.

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What Are The Causes Of Malaria?

The causes of malaria are atypical. Infection with the malaria parasite causes an individual to suffer from malaria disease. The disease can be passed from an infected mother to her unborn child. Such cases are known as congenital malaria. On the other hand, malaria can also be passed from one infected person to another during organ transplants, blood transfusion, or using the same needle or syringe.

What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Malaria?

Malaria

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Symptoms of malaria are too similar to influenza and or virus infection. The symptoms of malaria are too similar to those seen in the case of influenza and viral syndrome. However, there are nuances in the signs and symptoms of these conditions that seem to help doctors suspect malaria. In some people, symptoms of malaria may not show up until months later. In many other cases, they are immediately prominently displayed. Common symptoms of malaria are:

  • Chills
  • Comma
  • High Fever
  • Muscle Pain
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Anaemia
  • Conclusive
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Rapid Breathing
  • Rapid Heart rate

When Do Symptoms Begin If A Person Infected With Malaria?

Symptoms of malaria appear 10 days to a month after infection. Symptoms may be mild it depends on the type of parasite. Some people do not feel sick for a year after being bitten by a mosquito. Parasites can live in the body for years without causing symptoms.

How Is Diagnosed Malaria?

If a person has malaria physician examines the symptoms of a patient with his/her health history. After the physical examination physician advises the patient for a series of tests to confirm the malaria disease. These tests determine:

  • Whether a person has malaria or not.
  • Which type of malaria he has?
  • If anaemia is an effect of the disease.
  • Whether the disease causes damage to the vital organ.
  • If the presence of parasites in the body is the cause of the infection that is resistant to certain drugs.

Frequently Asked Question

Que: How can malaria be prevented?
Ans: Appropriate consumption of the drug and non-prophylactic measures can prevent many people to suffer from malaria.

Que: How long does malaria to take develop?
Ans: Usually infection occurs 10 days to 4 weeks after infection, although a person may feel ill as early as 7 days or as late as 1 year.

Que: Who is most affected by malaria?
Ans: Malaria has been the leading cause of death and disease in many countries. In developing countries, many young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. According to the 2021, World Malaria report Nearly half of the world’s population lives in areas at risk of malaria transmission.

Que: What blood type is immune to malaria?
Ans: People with blood type O are protected against severe malaria. It has been long known that people with other types of blood like A can fall into a coma and die.

Que: Which country has the highest number of malaria cases?
Ans: The democratic republic of the congo registered the highest number of cases approx 24.9 million, followed by Nigeria with 21.6 million cases.

Conclusion:

Malaria is a disease that is uncommon in temperate climates. Malaria is common in tropical and subtropical countries. Each year nearly 290 people are infected with malaria and more than 400,000 people die due to malaria. To reduce the transmission of malaria global health programmes are distributing the mosquito net treated with preventive drugs and insecticides to keep people away from mosquito bites. The World Health Organization recommends the use of malaria vaccines in children living in countries with high malaria cases.

Disclaimer: All the content of this article is for information purposes only.

References:

www.who.int

www.unicef.org

www.mayoclinic.org

 

Raina Rahul Agarwal

A Non-Medical Scientist, BSL-2 Lab, Mirzapur

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