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Virus: Infection, Types & Causes

Raina Rahul Agarwal 10 Nov, 2022 Health & Fitness No Comments

What Is Virus?

A virus is an infectious unicellular organism consisting of DNA or RNA nucleic acid. The genetic material of the virus DNA or RNA coated with protein. A virus cannot replicate itself instead it must infect cells. The virus uses components of the host cell to reproduce and make multiple copies through the replication process. We are all introduced to many viruses like HIV, SARS- CoV-2, Measles, Small Pox etc. Recently we all suffered from an outbreak of covid 19. Symptoms of viral illness occur due to tissue damage and the immune response host.

What Is Viral Infection?


Viruses are marked as the most biological being on this planet. It is present everywhere on this earth. This viral infection caused trouble in human life by the prevalence of many ailments in human life. In simple parlance, we can say that the main cause of the disease is a viral infection. Different viruses invade different human organs such as the lungs, intestines, eyes etc. When viruses infect humans they endure cough, cold, breathing issues, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain.

What Are the Types Of Viral Infections

The most common viral infection are:

Respiratory Infections: Infection that occurs on the nose, throat, respiratory tract, lungs etc. Human usually suffers from an upper respiratory infection that causes a common cold, sore throat, sinusitis etc. Despite these, there are some other diseases that are also caused by respiratory infection these diseases are influenza, pneumonia, and corona.

The virus also causes croup (inflammation in the upper and lower airways that is called laryngotracheobronchitis) in children, an infection also causes bronchiolitis that occurs in lower ways.

Gastrointestinal Infection: An infection that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract by noroviruses and rotaviruses. This infection is known as gastroenteritis.

Liver: Infection that occurs in the liver causes hepatitis.

Nervous System: Some viruses such as rabies and West Nile viruses infects the human brain and cause encephalitis. There are some viruses that infect the layer of tissues, that cover the brain and spinal cord, which causes meningitis and polio.

Skin: Some viruses invade the skin and cause warts or other blemishes. Some viruses also cause infection in other parts of the body resulting in chickenpox.

Placenta and Fetus: Zika viruses, Rubella viruses and cytomegalovirus infects the placenta and fetus in women.

How Does Virus Infection Affect the Human Body?

Viruses can attack healthy living organisms like hijackers to replicate and generate other viruses like them. Viruses cannot produce without host cells. They release their genetic material either DNA or RNA into host cells. This genetic material contains information which is needed to replicate the virus.

RNA or DNA of viruses force the host cells to replicate. Due to this process, they kill the infected cells and dead cells are not able to perform normal functions. This operation makes the human body sick and weak. Some symptoms like fever, headache, and body pain occur while having an infection. Although it is not necessary when a human body gets a virus it may not feel sick because its immune response may be able to fight against it.

What Are The Common Symptoms Of Viral Infection

There are symptoms that human beings may suffer during viral infection:

  • High Fever
  • Tiredness and Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Diarrhoea
  • Sore Throat
  • Cough
  • Running nose
  • Chills
  • Muscle ache
  • Skin rash
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Stiffness in neck
  • Seizures
  • Loss of sensation
  • Impaired bladder
  • Impaired bowel function
  • Paralysis of limbs
  • Sleepiness and Confusion

Frequently Asked Questions:

Que: How long does viral infection stay in the human body?
Ans: A viral infection usually lasts for one or two weeks, but if a man is not feeling well then it can seem long-lasting.


Before the virus was discovered vaccines were used to prevent viral infections such as polio, measles, mumps and rubella have been significantly reduced by their use. Vaccines and immunoglobins help the body better defend against diseases caused by certain viruses or bacteria. 

Disclaimer: All the content of this article is for information purposes only.


author avatar
Raina Rahul Agarwal
My name is Raina Agarwal, and I am a seasoned content writer with three years of experience in the field. Holding a master's degree in microbiology. I have also garnered valuable experience as a microbiologist, with a career spanning over a decade since 2011. My diverse professional background enables me to offer unique insights and perspectives in my content creation endeavours.

Raina Rahul Agarwal

A Non-Medical Scientist, BSL-2 Lab, Mirzapur

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