Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis disease which means it spreads from animals to humans. It is found in other primates too and certain rodents in Africa. The first case of this virus infection was found in a human in 1970 in the Democratic Public of Congo during the effort to eradicate smallpox.
It is caused by the infected with the monkeypox virus. This disease is in the same family as smallpox. It was first noticed in 1958 by scientists during their research on colonies of Monkeys hence named Monkeypox. Scientists are not sure but it is thought to be spread by squirrels and rodents in the rainforest of Africa. This virus is most common in central and west Africa, but since February 2022 health experts started to report an outbreak outside Africa.
At the end of May 2022, WHO confirmed the 100 cases of Monkey Pox virus in several other countries in Europe, Australia and Canada. The CDC has confirmed the case of Monkey Pox in the USA as well.
Classification Of Virus:
Monkeypox virus has an enveloped shaped double-stranded DNA. It belongs to the family Poxviridae and the genus Orthopoxvirus which includes camelpox, cowpox, vaccinia, and variola viruses.
How To Spread Monkeypox virus:
Monkeypox virus can transmit from animal to human by direct contact with body fluids, blood, and cutaneous and mucosal lesions of infected animals. In Africa infection of monkeypox virus is found in rope squirrels, tree squirrels, Gambian poached rats, dormice, different species of monkey and others. People who cook inadequately meat or who eat animal products can be at risk factors. People who live in the forest area can also be exposed to infection.
Monkeypox virus can also transmit from human to human by the following:
- Transmission of human to human can occur by airborne droplets at the time of sneezing and coughing.
- Transmission via respiratory droplets can occur by prolonged contact with humans.
- It can also transmit by skin lesions and blood at the time of any injury to the body.
- Monkeypox can occur by direct contact with any surface (like tables, bedding and clothes etc.) contaminated with the virus.
- Monkeypox can also infect the fetus via the placenta from the mother or during close contact after birth.
It is not yet confirmed is monkeypox STI (Sexually transmitted infection). But WHO said in May 2022 most of the cases were sexually transmitted.
Signs & Symptoms Of Monkeypox:
The incubation period of Monkeypox is usually from 6 to 13 days but it can also range from 5 to 21 days. The symptoms of monkeypox are similar to smallpox but it is mild.
- Muscle aches
- Sore throat
- dry cough
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Breathing trouble
- A rash with red bumps arises after three days of infection. It ofter starts from the face then it appears in other parts of the body- hands, feet, arms. Initially, rashes look like flat round lesions (macules) and red bumps (papules) and sometimes it turns into blisters and fills with pus (vesicles). After many days these blisters changed into yellowish fluid crust over and fall off.
How serious Is Monkeypox?
Monkeypox disease can run into 2 to 4 weeks but it can be quite serious if people do not get proper treatment or take precautions. Most affected people with Monkeypox are children who have low immunity and get exposed to a lot of viruses. The first case was found of Monkeypox in a 9-year-old boy. In this illness death is rare but it’s possible. In Africa 1 to 10 people died the case of Monkeypox were found.
Several studies show that vaccination against small vaccines is 85 % effective against Monkeypox. Previously who are vaccinated with the smallpox vaccine can get a mild infection with Monkeypox. People can see the scar of the prior smallpox vaccine on the upper arm. At present time smallpox vaccine is no longer because smallpox disease is no longer. A new vaccine based on the modified attenuated vaccine vaccinia virus (Ankara Strain) was approved in 2019 for the prevention of disease.
Diagnosis Of Monkeypox:
If the patient is suspected of Monkeypox then the health worker should collect the sample in viral transport medium (VTM) and transport it into the laboratory. Confirmation of the Monkeypox disease depends on the type and quality of the specimen and laboratory test. To diagnose PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is preferred for accuracy and sensitivity.
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