ReviewLaza » Disease » Thyroid Disease: Types & Causes

Thyroid Disease: Types & Causes

Raina Rahul Agarwal 26 Apr, 2022 Disease No Comments
Thyroid Disorder


Thyroid Disease has become the most common disease in the world after diabetes mellitus.  It is an endocrine system problem and is more common in women compared to men. In India, about 42% of people are affected by thyroid disease. Thyroid disease is characterized by Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism and thyroid nodule/cancer.

What Is Thyroid

Thyroid Gland

The thyroid is an endocrine gland found in the human neck just below Adam’s Apple (Larynx). The shape of the thyroid gland is a butterfly. It is made up of two lobes right lobe and the left lobe. It does not appear outwardly, it is able to be felt under the pressure of the finger on the neck. These lobes are located on either side of the windpipe ( Trachea). The thyroid gland produces two types of hormones that are secreted into the blood-1) Thyroxine T4 and 2) Triiodothyronine. the main role of the thyroid gland in the metabolic growth and development of the human body.

What Is Thyroid Disease

When the thyroid gland does not produce the right amount of hormones then thyroid disease occurs. The thyroid gland absorbs the salt from the food and forms the hormones- 1) Thyroxine T4 and 2) Triiodothyronine. These hormones control the metabolism process of the human body. Metabolism process that converts food into energy after consumption by the human body.

If the thyroid gland works properly then the right amount of hormones produces if the right quantity of hormones produces the metabolism functions properly. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus control these functions, it controls the rate at which the thyroid secretes these hormones in the bloodstream. Pituatorygland is situated at the base of the brain.   The Pituitary gland secretes a hormone called Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This hormone adjusts the quantity of the T4 hormones when the Pituitary gland feels a deficiency of T4 hormones.

Hence thyroid Disease occurs when the thyroid gland does not function properly. Thyroid Disease occurs either by releasing more hormones or by not releasing enough hormones.

Types Of Thyroid


Hypothyroidism also called underactive thyroid occurs when the thyroid gland does not make enough hormones and does not release enough hormones in the bloodstream. due to this metabolism gets slow down. It can make patients feel tired and put on weight. In hypothyroidism patients’ the skin is dry, they are unable to tolerate cold temperature, BP may be increased, a patient may suffer from constipation due to low bowel movements, the tongue is bigger and the voice is hoarse.

Symptoms Of Hypothyroidism

  • Fatigue
  • Decreases sweating
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Slow heart rate
  • Goitre-The trouble with breathing or swallowing due to enlarging of the thyroid may cause the neck to look swollen
  • High Cholesterol
  • hair loss 
  • Memory loss


Hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid occurs when the thyroid gland produces a high amount of hormones. It occurs due to the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland or the thyroid itself does not work properly. It can make metabolism up. It is autoimmune thyroiditis. Hyperthyroidism can cause serious illness if does not get proper treatment. In hyperthyroidism, patients may lose weight.

Symptoms Of Hyperthyroidism

  • Rapid Heartbeat
  • Weight Loss
  • Mood Swing
  • Trouble in Sleeping
  • Fatigue 
  • Nervousness
  • Muscle Weakness
  • Hair Loss
  • Diarrhoea
  • Intolerance to excessive heat

Frequently Asked Question

Que: How does thyroid disease affect daily life?
Fatigue, weight loss or weight gain, and temperature intolerance can affect daily life.

Que: What can make thyroid disease worse?
There are some factors e.g stress, Loneliness, and smoking that can affect the thyroid disease worse but these are not the cause of the thyroid disease. These factors can influence the metabolism of the human body and will reduce the formation of hormones.

Que: At what age do thyroid problems start?
Usually thyroid problem starts at the age of 20-30.


Thyroid disease is a general term for a medical condition that prevents the thyroid to make hormones. The thyroid produces hormones to keep our body proper functioning. These hormones control the metabolism of our body. Today Thyroid has become a common disease in human beings. The most common cause of thyroid is iodine deficiency. It leads to goitre formation and hypothyroidism. Most people with thyroid disease have an autoimmune disease.

Disclaimer: All the content of this article is for information purposes only.


author avatar
Raina Rahul Agarwal
My name is Raina Agarwal, and I am a seasoned content writer with three years of experience in the field. Holding a master's degree in microbiology. I have also garnered valuable experience as a microbiologist, with a career spanning over a decade since 2011. My diverse professional background enables me to offer unique insights and perspectives in my content creation endeavours.

Raina Rahul Agarwal

A Non-Medical Scientist, BSL-2 Lab, Mirzapur

Leave a Comment

  • Name
    URL: (Optional)