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Covid 19: Surveillance, Symptoms, Transmission & Precautions

Raina Rahul Agarwal 1 Sep, 2021 Health & Fitness 16 Comments
Information about covid 19

Photo by CDC from Pexels

What should you know about covid 19

Covid 19 is a disease that causes infection in the respiratory tract: upper respiratory tract ( sinuses, noses, and throat) and lower respiratory tract ( windpipe and lungs) SARS CoV-2 virus ( Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2)is responsible for the disease. SARS Cov-2 is one of the types of coronavirus which are identified on December 19 at an early stage of 2020 first time in Wuhan in China, so they named it a novel coronavirus Experts call this strain SARS-Cov-2.

When a virus infects a person attaches to the cell of that person and gets inside the body and they make copies of RNA as RNA is the genetic material of the virus similar to DNA ( Human genetic material) but not the same.

People who have been infected with SARS-Cov-2 have experienced mild to moderate respiratory illness and they recover without requiring any specific treatment, but symptoms during mild COVID-19 can still be serious if they are not treated properly.

Older people and those who are underlying from medical treatment like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to be serious.

Symptoms Of Covid19:

Persons who are affected with the covid 19 can be symptomatic( Being symptoms of disease) or Asymptomatic( No Symptoms). Symptoms of covid 19 are like the flu  (caused by the influenza virus). Symptoms appear 2-14 days after infection. People should be isolated for about 2 weeks ( according to government guidelines)

There are many symptoms of covid 19 like:

  • Fever
  • Coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Trouble in breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Sore Throat
  • Loss Of Smell
  • Loss Of Taste
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhoea
  • Transmission Of Covid 19 disease:

There are two modes of transmission of covid 19 diseases: 1) Direct and 2 ) Indirect

Direct modes of transmission of covid 19 diseases are:

  • Airborne transmission via air droplets ( particles under 100 micrometres in diameter) is suspected to be the main source of transmission. Air droplets may be formed in the air via the infected person  ( Asymptomatic & Symptomatic) by sneezing, coughing and talking, etc.
  • Secretion of fluids like Saliva, Urine, Feces, Tears & Semen.
  • Mother to Child – Commonly spread via inhalation of respiratory droplets. Hence the risk of transmission increases when the person is within 1 meter of the distance.

Indirect mode of transmission:

  • Contacts of Fomites or surfaces like Furniture, Utensils & Clothes, etc.). Coronaviruses have poor survivability on surfaces so getting the risk of contamination vis surface is very low. ( Virus can survive in cardboard for 1 day and in plastic for 2 days.)
  • Used objects of the infected person.

Larger air droplets (spread through mild coughing and talking)remain in the air for a short time and can not cover a distance greater than 1 meter, While small air droplets (spread through sneezing) remain in the air for a long time and can cover distances more than 1 meter.

Precautions During Covid 19 Disease:


Photo by Karolina Grabowska from Pexels

  • Vaccination: Get Vaccines to protect yourself by authorized vaccination.
  • Social Distance: According to CDC guidelines people should maintain a distance of approximately 6 feet in public places.
  • Mask: Wearing a mask is essential to control measures for people who go in public places. Cotton masks and multiple layers of the mask with nose clips masks are the best masks for protecting a person with covid 19. Wash the cotton mask with soap and keep it in the sunlight as UV light is found in the sunlight and UV light destroys the virus. (Effective way of sanitizing mask)
  • Cleaning and Disinfecting: Washing hands is the best way to eliminate diseases. Experts say soap breaks the outer membrane or coat of the fatty layers found around the virus. Viruses are not able to survive for long after the layers are gone, that’s why it is said to wash hands with any soap.
  • Use sanitiser However, sanitiser is also effective if washing hands with soap is not possible.
  • Disinfect your home – floors, furniture, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Improve ventilation in your home.

Frequently Asked Questions

Que1: What are the differences in symptoms of Influenza (Flu) & Covid 19?
Answer: Most of the symptoms of covid 19 and flu are the same as cough, Headache, Sneezing Fever, etc. A person experiences symptoms of flu from 1 to 4 days after infection and covid 19 can develop symptoms 1-14 days after infection. as a point of comparison, the incubation period for a cold is 1-3 days. Many people infected with the coronavirus do not feel sick or have any symptoms, but they can still transmit the coronavirus to other people. Covid 19 patients lose their taste (ageusia) and smell (anosmia), but flu does not lose taste and smell.

Que2: What is a community spread?
Answer: Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected. Each health department determines community spread differently based on local conditions. 

Que3: What are the recommendations for someone who has symptoms of covid 19?

  • Stay at home
  • Separate yourself from others 
  • Monitor your symptoms
  • Go for an RT PCR test
  • Consult with doctor

Que4: Are individuals contagious before they develop symptoms?
Answer: Covid 19 can be spread by an individual before they develop symptoms. This poses a problem because people who do not know they are infected may continue to go to work, school, and other public places. People who are sick and have symptoms are more likely to stay home, which means fewer opportunities for viruses to spread from one person to another. When asymptomatic transmission occurs, infection control experts and public health officials may need to take additional measures, such as social distancing, isolating, or using quarantines.

Que5: Is it safe to get routine medical care during a pandemic?
Answer: Yes, many routine medical visits can be provided virtually via telemedicine, other services, including routine vaccinations, may be available in pharmacies, clinics, or physician offices that have taken appropriate precautions. It is important to make sure that you and your family members are up-to-date on all recommended vaccinations.

Conclusion: Covid 19 is an infectious disease that continues to spread across the world. The spread of covid 19 in the country depends on the factors such as the identification of covid 19 suspects, social distance, and low testing rates. this study will help in increasing the knowledge of the person about covid 19 which will increase the willingness to live in this infectious environment and also help in controlling the spreading of this disease in this world.

Disclaimer: This guide is for informational purposes only and should not be constructed as advice or as a substitute for consulting physicians.


author avatar
Raina Rahul Agarwal
My name is Raina Agarwal, and I am a seasoned content writer with three years of experience in the field. Holding a master's degree in microbiology. I have also garnered valuable experience as a microbiologist, with a career spanning over a decade since 2011. My diverse professional background enables me to offer unique insights and perspectives in my content creation endeavours.

Raina Rahul Agarwal

A Non-Medical Scientist, BSL-2 Lab, Mirzapur

16 Comments on 'Covid 19: Surveillance, Symptoms, Transmission & Precautions'

  • September 1, 2021
    Anand Seth:

    Thanks for giving…advice🙏

  • September 1, 2021


  • September 1, 2021
    Dharmendra Singh NMS VARANASI:

    When is the best time to test for COVID-19 following an exposure?

  • September 1, 2021
    Dr.Ankita Mishra:

    Superb 🥰🥰

  • September 1, 2021
    Rahul Agarwal:

    Nice article in brief

  • September 2, 2021

    Very nice information on Covid. Thanks

  • September 4, 2021

    informative article!

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